Saturday, August 17, 2019

Environmental Ethics Essay

Suppose that putting out natural fires, culling feral animals or destroying some individual members of overpopulated indigenous species is necessary for the protection of the integrity of a certain ecosystem. Will this actions be morally permissible or even required? Is it morally permissible or even required? Is it morally acceptable for farmers in non-industrial to practice- slash and burn techniques to clear areas for agriculture? Consider a mining company witch has performed open pit mining in some previously unspoiled area. Does the company have moral obligation to restore the landform and surface ecology? And what is the value of a humanly restored environment compared and to consume a huge portion of the planet’s natural resources. If that wrong, it is simple because a sustainable environment and to consume a huge portion of the planet’s natural resources. If that is wrong, is it simple because a sustainable environment is essential to present and future well-being? Or such behavior also wrong because the natural environment and or its various contents have certain values in their own right so that these values ought to be respected and protected in any case? These are among the questions investigated by environmental ethics. Some of them are specific questions faced by individuals in particular circumstances, while others are moral global questions faced by groups and communities. Yet others are more abstract questions concerning the value and moral standing of the natural environment and its nonhuman components. In the literature on environmental ethics the distinction between instrumental value and intrinsic value( meaning non-instrumental value) has been of considerable importance. The former is the value of things as means to further some other ends. A set of rules outlining human responsibility concerning environmental ethics defines the relationship towards ‘’the surroundings, both biotic and abiotic’’ collective called the environment’’ (Blackmore,1977) Any person who has ever given a though to the need to protect and develop the environment has either implicit or explicit code of ethics regarding these issues that determines everyday behavior patterns. In the same way, I also have my own values and ethics regarding environmental issues that define my responsibility to the natural environment. Although at times I can violate these values when the situation proves to be challenging, I nevertheless hold them in high steem. First of all , my Ethical approach is grounded in the belief that ‘’we must recognize the inherent rights of nature and natural system to survive intact (Blackmore,1997) . All too often human beings view nature and natural system as a pleasant surrounding for their leisure time or a resource for economic activity. This is a dangerous point of view since it leads to the destruction of natural habitats through over-using, rampant pollution, depletion of resources, and the extinction of wild flora and fauna. I believe that people in their activities should recognize preservation of natural systems as an important priority that has to be considered Along with economic efficiency and at times even override it. The Earth has suffered too much from the influence of humans, and it is time to give it a rest and let it recuperate from the damage. Accordingly environmental problems will consist in problems either for human interest or for the interest of the non-human animals, and an acceptable environmental ethic would have this individual interest as its grounds. Indeed those who believe that only sentient or conscious creatures have interest and that having interest is necessary for warranting moral consideration will hold that nothing else has interest on witch environmental problems could turn. Problems for ecosystems are thus held to turn invariably on the interest of sentinel or conscious individuals, and within such and ethic, priority is liable to be placed on averting, suffering premature death for vulnerable individuals, whether is best done by the introduction of humane methods of farming, by abstaining from eating meat by curtailing human interventions in the natural order, or even possibly by intervening to reduce the suffering inflicted by predators on prey. Millions of people are influenced by such ethic, and their approach to environmental problems would often follow the general pattern just mentioned. Others, However, suggest that environmental ethics must start somewhere quite different. Thinking about the environment involves taking much greater account of ecological systems than such an individualist approach can do, and if we fail to understand the natural system of our planet we are likely to generate ecological catastrophes, either by neglect or through seeking to rescue individuals while the system on witch we depend is crumbling. By the time we have understood such systems, our focus will no longer be on the individual suffering or, since far more is at stake, such as the survival of whole species, and the health of the whole ecosystems We need to prioritize the Preservation and rehabilitation of species and of ecosystems. New and modern ’’Green technologies and the conservation of natural resources Oil, Gas, Land ect will have to be more regulated in as universal Ethics in our global economy. Bibliography Abram,D. , 1996 The spell of the sensuous, New York : vintage books Michael Walzer, interpretations and social Criticism ( New York: Basic Books,1988} J. Bair Callicutt, In defense of the land Ethic ( Albany: State of New York press, 1989) Eugene Hardgrove, Foundations of environmental ethics ( Englewood Cliffs: Prentice hall, 1989) Samuel Hays, Conservation and the gospel of efficiency ( Cambridge, MA: Harvard University press,1959)

Friday, August 16, 2019

Moneyball: Billy Beane Masculinity Essay

In an ever-increasing technological world, we are presented with many different concepts of what it is to be a ‘man’. Television, film and other forms of new media in particular are no strangers to the depiction of a variety of masculine stereotypes. However, since the popularisation of film in the late 1930’s, there has been one male stereotype that has been most commonly portrayed; the alpha male. One such character that this stereotype encapsulates is Moneyball’s (2011) Billy Beane, portrayed by Brad Pitt. Based on a true story, Moneyball, directed by Bennet Miller, depicts the Oakland Athletics’ 2002 Major League Baseball season, and the struggles of manager Billy Beane to take a low-budget team to success. The director’s discerning choices of narrative, symbolic and technical elements help to compose the alpha male stereotype that Billy conforms to. These elements give viewers an invited reading of Billy as an authoritative manager, who b ehaves and treats others with superiority, yet acts with a sense of individuality both around others and in a work environment, and openly shows emotion. Through Billy’s body language and mannerisms, and dialogue, the director consistently foregrounds Billy’s superior behaviour around others. As a result of Billy’s body language and mannerisms, we come to understand that due to his lack of relationships he cannot relate to players and thus treats them with a sense of inferiority. For instance, Billy always acts dominantly when in conversation, chewing tobacco, mimicking and talking over others and rarely sitting to display this authority. This body language is most evident when Art Howe, the team coach, attempts to intimidate him while negotiating his contract; Billy brushes him off despite Art clearly presenting the better argument. From there Billy proceeds to a scout meeting where he chews tobacco and indicates to Peter Brand when he is allowed to speak, with a snap of his fingers. This clearly demonstrates his use of body language around others to exercise his dominance. Bennet Miller further uses Billy’s dialogue to foreground his superior attitude and treatment of others. Billy rarely concedes to anyone, being particularly frank and straightforward, sure in his belief that he doesn’t have to explain himself to others. A  strong example of this is when Billy advises Peter Brand that, â€Å"It’s a problem you think we need to explain ourselves. Don’t. To anyone.† This mentality further reflects his display of superior behaviour and treatment of others, however, Billy remains quite individualistic both around others and at work. Bennet Miller uses the technical elements of lighting and camera work, and the narrative element of the plot to emphasise the individualistic orientation of Billy, both socially and at work. In spite of his behaviour and body language, throughout the movie Billy is portrayed as an individualist with few notable or intimate relationships. In many ways not only is Billy an individualist in the social sense but also in a work perspective, going against the grain of what baseball managers have done for the last 80 years; essentially he is a trailblazer. When we are first presented with Billy, we see him alone in a dark room lamenting the Oakland A’s playoff loss from the previous season. Through the use of lighting in this one shot we are presented with a recurring idea for Brad Pitt’s character, the haunting memories of loss and failure. Throughout the film we come to realize that the use of limited lighting and close up shots are used to highlight Billy’s social isolation. Furthermore, the underlying narrative is used to extend this idea, this time however in a work sense. The focal point of this movie is not baseball, but rather the way in which Billy defies the way in which players were picked for baseball teams. Instead of selecting players solely on their technique and precision, Billy opts to select players based on statistical merit. This important plot point is the basis for Billy’s determined approach to work; he works in a unique way, and is therefore considered by many to be ‘individual’ from other baseball managers. It takes great courage to defy what is widely accepted, and this action not only reinforces Billy’s alpha male status, but also reveals much about his discourse, especially his use of emotion, something uncommon to his stereotype. The elements of narrative and dialogue are effectively used by the director to underline Billy’s use of emotion, something uncommon of the alpha male  stereotype. With new depictions of masculinity rising due to technology, it has become accepted for more ‘manly’ stereotypes to show emotion. Billy is often seen throughout the film displaying his anger, frustration or satisfaction. The director’s use of narrative gives several examples of such sentiment: Billy throwing his tape away after hearing the A’s lose, upturning a table after a disagreement with the scouts and celebrating with a fist pump when he learns of his success in signing Ricardo Rincon. We grow to learn throughout the film that Billy didn’t play, and doesn’t coach baseball for the money, but rather for the satisfaction of winning. In fact, it is his deep emotional connection to failure, insecurity and lost potential that causes Billy to openly show sentiment. The director’s use of dialogue is key in understanding Billy’s overall discourse and in particular his use of emotion. An example of this effective use of dialogue is when Billy discusses the Oakland A’s 20-game winning streak with Peter Brand, â€Å"I’ve been in this game for a long time. I’m not in it for a record.† This suggests that Billy’s alpha male stereotype is more complex than it first seems, instead of being solely focused on the glory that can come with baseball, Billy shows us that satisfaction taken from exceeding expectations is most often greater. For many, emotion is not a characteristic commonly exhibited by an alpha male, yet Mill er manages to successfully weave this trait into Billy Beane. Bennet Miller has created a three-dimensional character in Billy Beane, who, while fitting the alpha male stereotype, adds emotion to a masculine depiction generally averse to showing sentiment. The invited reading created for Billy is that of a manager who acts with a sense of superiority around others, yet one who acts individually and openly shows emotion. Miller has achieved this invited reading through the selective use of narrative, symbolic and technical elements, including Billy’s dialogue, the film’s plot, and the use of lighting and camera angles. Ultimately, the film’s ability to present a common masculine stereotype and then challenge the discourse that defines this stereotype, positions viewers to realise that emotion is not an affliction of a male personality, rather it is something that defines the character of a ‘man’.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Mad About Plaid

Castlebridge is at a cross-road – on one hand it has to reduce costs which will eventually lead to a loss in a numerous amount of local employees. Reputational risk is now an issue as well brand-image. Once a provider for the wealthy, the company is concerned that tags relaying Asian manufacturing countries will undermine the confidence of the purchaser who is looking for something authentically British. 2. Niall Ferguson Niall Ferguson takes the logical approach where the objective of any firm is to maximise profits. By not doing so, the firm will lose out to the competitors and will continue to face rising costs in keeping up with consumer preferences. Ferguson hols Fergus Harold accountable for being overly nationalistic and even rather ignorant to the status of British clothing made in Malaysia and its effect on a Japanese consumer. The main concern of backlash would be from local purchasers whose confidence may be undermined by the outsourcing of a classy British brand to a third world country. However, it is well pointed out that Mary Crane does not feel threatened by British media – supposedly she sees that production line workers are of the lower working class whereas buyers of Castlebridge's products of are of the wealthier class. Besides, Ferguson debates, trade unions have been subdued during Thatcher's time. It's true that no British manufacturing line can survive in their high cost market by maintaining production lines within the UK. Labour is just too expensive. As for brand image, maintaining the class, thus the quality, is more important than running the risk of a complete closure and a shutdown of business. I agree with Ferguson. Cutting down on costs is the method that Castlebridge should take in this instance. There is no need to maintain high costs and place burden upon shareholders of the company. However, this response leaves out the important factor of Castlebridge employees. They need to be accounted for, regardless of class – and there are ways of compensating them for their loss of jobs. 3. Dana Thomas Dana Thomas, in her response, is more concerned with the fashion industry than other issues inherent in this article. The changes of fashion statements over the years and the paradigm expansion from just targeting the wealthier class to exposing brands to the middle class speaks volumes about what Castlebridge would have to go through in order to maintain sales. There is too much emphasis on luxury brands that are authentically English, but surviving in the ever-changing world of fashion is impossible of Castlebridge continues to perspire over brand positioning and its nuances towards the upper class alone. However due to their new target market they also face the vulnerability in dealing with economic externalities such as economic down-turns. Thomas agrees with the outsourcing of production lines to Asia while maintaining design houses in the United Kingdom. In my opinion, this should be the correct strategy to take. At the end of the day, it is vital for a firm to maximise profits – this is how a business operates. Thomas' concerns lay essentially with stakeholders, as do mine, as she describes Britishness a euphemism of integrity and honesty – she also mentions â€Å"coming clean about strategies and objectives.† Furthermore, with ever-changing tastes in the fashion industry, it only makes sense for brand image to also alter, according to customer whims. Hanging on Britishness will hardly be a priority if profits begin to decline in the long run. 4. Dov Seidman So far, I agree most with Dov Seidman's approach in determining the elements of effective managerial changes. Though the underlying objective of the firm is to maximise profits, there are also qualitative aspects Mary Crane's proposed outsourcing move. Like Dana Thomas, Seidman suggests that the company plans effectively and honestly to maintain an amicable relationship with all relevant parties. Management's role is more than just figure-oriented; it also looks into the human aspect of a company, imposing beliefs of fiduciary relationships upon more than just their stakeholders. Reputational risks are at stake if Castlebridge blatantly sideline their local work force who has been diligently churning out classy British produce for the past 30 years. Therefore, it is mandatory for Castlebridge to execute their plan in a tactful manner, full compensating valued employees while demonstrating the utmost responsibility towards their stakeholders. With the fast-paced internet, more people will know of a horrendous blind sight as compared to a good deed that Castlebridge executes. Furthermore, his concern for the brand image of Britishness is also wayward. He believes there is not necessarily a sacrifice of the wealth image just by outsourcing a production line. Therefore, brand positioning as agreed upon by Thomas and Ferguson is the least of Castlebridge's concerns. In hindsight, ethics is a concern for Seidman. A company cannot survive in today's age without a conscience. He even cites the example of Mary donating Castlebridge's used factory to the local community – it may be viewed as a PR gimmick. Seidman's holistic management approach is the most recent approach seen as of now in this article. He balances out the profits as well as the people aspect of the firm. 5. Gill Corkindale Gill Corkindale concentrates on supporting Castlebridge's staff. She provides managerial steps in determining their well-being before, throughout and after the process of outsourcing. As with Seidman, she focuses on the human factor of this whole escapade – her major concern are the employees of Castlebridge. Though she agrees that Crane is the ultimate forward-looking CEO who thrives from the betterment of the company, she has to consider those who have serviced Castlebridge over the years of providing for wealthy shoppers. I agree with Corkindale to ultimately take steps to ensuring the welfare of future former employees. Again honesty and integrity surface here as well when dealing with staff anxiety and apprehension in such a massive managerial shift. However, Corkindale comments a lot about communication and â€Å"what to expect† from downsized employees. She does not suggest compensatory packages or any other means that Crane and her team should take to help ascertain a fair future for their employees. A simple example would be a motivating reference letter. 6. Commentary Firstly, Castlebridge's management has a fiduciary duty to cater towards the betterment of stakeholders – the ultimate goal: maximise profits by increasing revenue and reducing costs. All respondents agree that outsourcing production lines to cheaper waged countries is the logical step for the company to take. Secondly, a responsibility towards employees takes the humanitarian approach by Castlebridge. Sincerely caring for the welfare of retrenched workers is a laudable act – compensation schemes and references to new jobs is required to maintain Castlebridge's integrity in the market. Thirdly, brand positioning can be accommodated through marketing tactics. Not all companies are born to remain wealth-targeted companies. Change and eventual evolvement is part and parcel of any retail provider – especially when they rely heavily on consumers for sales. Brand identity can be repositioned / reinforced, whichever Castlebridge chooses to implement. Brand image should be the least of their priorities. 7. Conclusion Castlebridge owes their shareholders a fiduciary relationship where their interests are placed higher than those of other parties. Strategically if a the production lines have to be outsourced offshore, they should proceed with the outsourcing, exercising due care towards retrenched employees as well as the local community – this is to maintain Castlebridge's reputation as a British company that cares about the locals. Brand identity as well as customer perception can be emphasised through marketing tools that are inevitably available for companies today. It is imperative that Castlebridge remains a profit maximising corporation or else, any heritage or standard they pride themselves in, in the first place, will cease to exist if costs begin to run higher than revenue lines. However, with principles in mind, Castlebridge can also turn its focus on philanthropic causes to maintain a degree of dignity in mind. Not only is this vital for the company's image, it also acts as an effective marketing tool, and in the long-run shareholders too will benefit from the exposure the company seeks through charitable causes.   

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

Nirma vs Hul Essay

Rural inhabitants aren’t a different species, but consumers as quirky and demanding of marketers as any of their urban cousins. And just as eager to consume — maybe even more so, given their access to messages of consumption via TV, but lacking the easy access that makes urban consumer’s blase. For marketers the potential is huge — a country waiting eagerly for their products, providing they can make the effort to export inwards, and learn to play the games by rural rules. And if they don’t, the chances are that they will be left behind. Even with the minimal effort put in by companies so far, rural India now accounts for majority, or near majority, consumption in many categories. — Rural India is clearly not such an area of darkness anymore, and as a further incentive to keep the lights on, remember that farmers get electricity free! One of the most popular and widely accepted Marketing Myth is that the rural consumers will only buy really cheap mass market brands. But the stark reality is that though brands like Nirma lead, but penetration of premium products has also been observed even to the lowest SEC. The percentages may be very small, but given the large universe, the actual figures may be significant Thus when we are aware of the fact that brands like Nirma rule the rural market, it would be interesting to study and analyse their basic marketing inputs —–the 4P†s 1 NIRMA About the Company Nirma is the Rs. 17 billion Detergents, Soaps and Personal Care Products Brand, a market leader in the Indian detergent market and second largest in bathing soaps†¦ the brand NIRMA being one of the world’s biggest in it’s segment†¦ result of it’s mission to provide ‘Better Products, Better Value, Better Living’. The man who altered the clothes-washing habits of the Karsanbhai Patel the chairman of the Ahmedabad-based Nirma Ltd. This chemist who manufactured detergents at home in Ahmedabad in 1969 has certainly come a long way. He worked from his backyard which developed into a soap factory, cycled to retail outlets and hawked his b rand at one-fourth of the price of similar products then available. At Rs 6, Nirma, named after his daughter, was the cheapest detergent vying for attention on shop shelves. By the late 1980s, Nirma had become one of the world’s largest-selling detergent powders. That he rewrote history and gave Hindustan Lever, the Indian subsidiary of the Anglo-Dutch foods and toiletries conglomerate Unilever, a huge headache is wellchronicled. Today he is proud owner of an Rs 2,500-crore Ahmedabad-based soaps and detergents major It has been Patel’s dream to make Nirma a synonym for quality. â€Å"Nirma is not merely a brand or a product, it is a dynamic phenomenon, a revolution, a philosophy,† he once said. Nirma sells over 800,000 tones of detergent products every year and commands a 35% share of the Indian detergent market, making it one of the world’s biggest detergent brands. Towards this end, he tried his hand at many brand extensions. From toothpaste to salt and matchsticks, they all nestled under the Nirma umbrella. Incorporated as a private limited company, Nirma was converted into a deemed public company and then to a public limited one in Nov. ’93. Nirma is an over Rs. 17 billion brand with a leadership presence in Detergents, Soaps and Personal Care Products, offering employment to over 15,000 people.

Tuesday, August 13, 2019

Discussion 10- economics-pricing techniques Assignment

Discussion 10- economics-pricing techniques - Assignment Example The iPhone is one of Apple’s products that have value-added features such as smart iPhone, wireless internet communication devices, IPod, PDA, Computer and Camera. The success of Apple products is because the company focuses on adding value to the lives of its customers. The company ensures that it develops valuable commodities for its customers. Apple also creates the perception of scarcity of its products among consumers. Perception of scarcity attaches a value to these products hence making many people want to own Apple products. Apple products also target a particular market segment. This creates a perception of value and quality on every product Apple releases. People want to associate themselves with Apple products because they believe these Products will add value to their lives. Value addition is part of Apple’s business strategy. The best pricing techniques for Apple products is to use decoy prices and high reference prices for its new products. Decoys will ensure that the company wins stocking demands for its products and sells all its decoy commodities at higher prices. High reference prices for new products can ensure success in meeting the sales targets for that particular product. When introducing a new product into the market, Apple should set high references prices for that particular product. However, as the products remain in the market, their prices may gradually reduce. Apple uses pricing techniques such as references prices, branding, obscurity and bundling to remain top of the market (McGuigan, Moyer, & Harris,

Org chemistry drawing assignment Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Org chemistry drawing assignment - Coursework Example 3) Draw trans-1,3-dimethylcyclohexane and cis-1,3-dimethylcyclohexane as their most stable chair conformations. Label all non-favorable interactions, describe why they are unfavorable, and to what value (energy). Which is more stable, the trans or cis structure? All non-favorable 1,3-diaxial interactions are presented in the figure above. Such interactions are unfavorable because both methyl groups and hydrogens try to occupy the same space, which leads to destabilization of the molecule. Structure (I) should be highly unfavorable due to interaction between two methyl groups. As in the previous case, this destabilization is expressed in a value of several kJ/mole. Cis-1,3-dimethylcyclohexane represented in the rectangle is the most stable because both methyl groups occupy equatorial positions. 4) Draw trans-1,4-dimethylcyclohexane and cis-1,4-dimethylcyclohexane as their most stable chair conformations. Label all non-favorable interactions, describe why they are unfavorable, and to what value (energy). Which is more stable, the trans or cis structure? Non-favorable 1,3-diaxial interactions are shown in the figure above. Such interactions are unfavorable because both methyl groups and hydrogens try to occupy the same space, which leads to destabilization of the molecule. As in all previous cases, this destabilization is expressed in a value of several kJ/mole. Trans-1,4-dimethylcyclohexane represented in the rectangle is the most stable because both methyl groups occupy equatorial positions. Bromine is significantly bigger then ethyl substituent. For this reason, it will produce less steric interactions if bromine is in the equatorial position. For this reason, the conformation represented in the rectangular will be the most stable. It is expected that the most amount of cis-1-bromo-4-ethylcyclohexane will be with the equatorial

Monday, August 12, 2019 Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - Research Paper Example At the main page you can find the news of the organization and several links with bright pictures which would transfer you to some interesting articles on the topic of health and its protection. A little bit lower on the page you can see rubrics in which people can find some information about some brand new viruses and bugs and the places where they are prevailing nowadays. The content of the main page and its disposing are very important, because people’s interest depends on them, and the website’s content was made perfectly and definitely makes you interested in it. Maybe the point is that anyway people are concerned about their health and usually information about its protection is interesting and informative that’s why the website is catching. The links which would bring you further into the website’s content are situated on the top of the main page and their names cover the most fundamental points a viewer would be interested in when he enters the sit e to get to know something about health and disease prevention. This leads us to the point that the main page was arranged brightly and catching to get people’s interest in what they can find on the website next, after a fast view of the main page. It is very important to make the following note about the content arrangement: there is no information which would be perceived as unnecessary or out of the topic. The names of the website’s items are clear and describe the specific aspects of the topic that might be interesting for visitors. The website’s visuals are pretty simple and understandable. You can see the organization’s logo on the top of every single page you open, so you never forget which site you’re visiting. The main points of every page are written shortly in bullet-points way, so you can just click on the item that is interesting for you to see more about it. Also, the website creators have succeeded in